Attitudes concerning toxic waste exposures are critical to developing a greater understanding of the problem of adverse mutations and generation of man-made diseases and increased human suffering. The adequacy of toxic waste definitions, policies, procedures in the U.S. have long been contested both here and abroad and are presently without resolution or consensus across disciplines (Caldicot, 1994) and social groups although medical doctors, toxicologists, and scientists are arguably in closer agreement globally about the harmful impacts of toxins becoming more visible than they were in the last 50 years when their use was relatively new compared to the scale and magnitude of more recent decades (Kaufman & Franz,1996). Contamination of most underground waterways is of particular concern (Congressional Research Service, 1990).
The conundrum of achieving alleged military dominance as a world superpower in pursuit of ultimate defenses contributes simultaneously, in my opinion, to presenting the greatest threat on earth as the pursuit and use of toxic options continues. The evolution of the toxic problem stems in part from basic human needs for security, desire for dominance, the application of intelligence to develop weapons/ research leading to technology and a growing arms race. Industry dependence on toxins fueled by consumer demands reinforces the commitment to toxins and net production of contamination of the environment and related health problems. Theories and prior research on; mutation (Nicols 1952), empathy deficiets, teratogens (Rice, 2001) complacency, human error (Bogner, M. 2003), motivation (Mazlow,A 1962) , personality incongruence (Sue, Sue, Sue 2000) , ineffectiveness of punishment as a behavior modifier (Maag, J, 1999), pervasive bias (Douglas, N. 2000), violence as a disease (Slutkin 2013), creativity, denial (Frued n.d.), obedience (Kurokawa, 2012. ), all help to explain the cycles of depletive reliance or unhealthy social development. Such theories and observations form the foundation upon which the next steps of inquiry are positioned leading away from describing critical life threatening problems, but to understand how such problems are being created/ exacerbated through compound variables within living organisms and what reasonable steps to address or resolve tangible parts of this complex overall pollution problem might be possible to achieve to reduce risks and deaths from accidents or intended exposures/ attacks. In specific, are their identifiable groups within U.S. culture that believe change regarding the use and dissemination of toxins or other perceived threats is needed and what sorts of priorities are mentioned in cross sectional polls and field interviews.
I argue that the perspectives of the accountable society members whom must ultimately bare the consequences of toxins and the damages caused (Carson, 1962), are critical to gaining insights about how to address and minimize risks and respond to accidents or predictable internal and external attacks of various sorts. The articulation of recommendations for further research or rule changes or new law introductions that may potentially save lives or better contain preventable mutations or spread of violence based disease are hopeful bi-products of the study. However, the chief objective is to explore, through polls/ interviews in the field to assess attitudes and observe cultural conditions which may be reinforcing the use or spread of toxins and what the surveyed population thinks should be done differently, if anything. Furthermore, observing differences and commonalities among demographics such as race, age, gender may also help to differentiate and identify trends among the population polled in the views they express on the polled subjects.
A pragmatic yet qualitative conceptual framework with naturalistic phenomenological field methods including case study strategies are dominant in the proposed study. Minor quantitative research methods may be included, if needed. Based on the methods proposed and relatively un-researched original area of inquiry tied to a specific sample at a particular location and point in time, an extensive bibliography is not purposeful (Rudestam & Newton, 2015 pg.81) except to help provide the context of the need for research and to address validity concerns for any instrumentation used. Several primary and secondary sources are listed more fully in the premise.
The research databases used to date include;
Thoreau Multi-Database Search, SAGE Premier, PsycINFO and ProQuest Science Journals.
In addition, a number of texts were referenced in the preliminary reviews of the subject which helped to identify the problem under review. A full list of the resources, especially more current study peer-reviewed articles used will be cited in my dissertation.
Keywords/ phrases/ word combinations used include;
U.S. military and chemical warfare, weapons of mass destruction, toxin regulations, attitudes towards environmentally related disease/ causation, environment contamination rates, biological weapons exposure rates, international laws, pollution rates, consumer, mutation, correlational, violence as disease, nuclear, obedience, teratogens, error prone behavior, empathy variations, nonviolence, consumer polls on violence/ on pollution/ nanoparticles.
Capstone resources will be used to develop the format of the dissertation. In the case of this assignment the kep points listed in the Litmus Test (Walden Center for Research Quality, n.d.) were addressed.
Bogner, M. (2003) p.9. Error is behavior, A.P.A. Washington D.C.:Psychological science agenda.
Caldicott, H. (1994 p.22). Nuclear madness. New York: Norton.
Carson, R. (1962 pg. 6). Silent spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Congressional Research Service, (1990). Environmental Concerns Periodical. Summer/Fall. (original citation being reviewed currently to locate a more current figure of polluted waterways.)
Douglas, N. (2000). Enemies of Critical thinking: lessons from social psychology research. Reading Psychology 21::129-144
Kaufman & Franz (1996). Biosphere 2000. Iowa: Kenhall/Hunt Publishing Co.
Kurokawa, K. 2012. Fukashima in a Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Nation Diet of Japan: Japan.
Lungren, D. (1995). Violence prevention: a vision of hope. CA: Attorney Generals Office Dept. of Justice.
Maag, J. (1999). Behavior management, San Diego: Singular Publishing.
Maslow, A. (1962) Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Norstrand.
Newman, I., Ridenour, C. S., Newman, C., & DeMarco, G. M. P. (2003). A typology of research purposes and its relationship to mixed methods. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 167-188). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (4th edition). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Preece, P. (2007). Infants exposed to fetal teratogens: long-terms outcome of infants exposed to neuroactive compounds in utero. Adoption and Fostering v(3)(1).
Rice, P. (2001). Human Development p. 215,163, 31 New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Schuman, J. (2010). Teratogen screening: state of the art. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology v (2)(3) p115-121.
Sharp, G. (1990). The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle. MA: Einstein Institute, ISSN1052-1054
Slutkin, G. 2013. Violence as a Contagious Disease. Retrieved 07/19/2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207245/
Smyth, J., Mendez, J. Stern, M. (2012). The effects of item saliency and question design on measurements error in a self administered survey. Field Methods 24:3 DOI 10.1177/1525822x11419478
Steiner, J. (n.d.) Improving homeland security at the state level. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved online 10/17/12 www.cia.gov
Sue, Sue, Sue. (2000 pg. 14). Abnormal behavior. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
The Surgeon Generals report on Nutrition and Health, Pub #88-50210, Washington, D.C. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, (1988). earthsave.org & www.foodrevolution.org
Walden University Center for Research Quality, (n.d.) Retrieved from http://researchcenter.waldenu.edu/Research-Resources.htm
Zeoli, A, Pizarro, J., Grady, S. Melde, C., (2012). Homicide as an infectious disease: using public health methods to investigate the diffusion of homicide. Justice Quarterly. DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2012.732199