Explores U.S. attitudes on environmental contamination and global security policy recommendations.
Robert A. Jackson
Public Policy and Administration – Homeland Security
Explores U.S. attitudes (from general public and specialists) on environmental contamination to inform global security policy recommendations.
Prospectus: This proposal seeks to address two problems. First the absence of purposeful and reliable opinions on the topic of environmental contamination in the U.S. Secondly, research may lead to the application of existing scientific knowledge analyzed through meta-data and hand coded analysis to produce critical policy recommendations to address defined threats found in respondents perspectives and the analysis of selected literature sources.
Problems were pinpointed following literature reviews and the identification of a gap in knowledge, which is regarded as reinforcing the ongoing destruction of nature. Valid qualitative scholarly polls are lacking on the subject of attitudes towards toxic waste also known as neuro active compounds or nano-particles generally in the U.S. Especially lacking are non-directed views examining what people think about contamination in relation to global security. This hallmark absence of data represents a threat to democracy, and limits the deliberative process, which influences the quality of decision-making (Bryson, 2011). Reasonable man’s test can’t be applied, nor can empirically valid arguments be made if sufficient credible polls are non-existent from which to draw analysis. In fact, cultures of obedience and secrecy often reinforce falsehoods, oppression, and or misunderstandings, which can be combated with reliable and credible intelligence. One criticism concerning U.S. polling designs for public opinion is that they are, “designed with [excessive] bias rendering invalid pictures of the true attitudes and needs of the American [U.S.] Public” (Reinson,2005). Statistics show industrialized nations disproportionately contribute to harmful waste generation, and environmentally related diseases related to contaminants are reportedly on the rise (Anand et. al., 2008), which requires global solutions to mitigate damages to the biosphere and its inhabitants. Exploratory valid qualitative data collection can complement prior research and help make advances on understanding and identifying obstacles regarding the management of environmental contamination. The formation of credible and evidence based threat analysis, which may include formulated definitions, fact statements, and synthesized recommendations can inform policy making.
Exploring attitudes of the U.S. population in this qualitative study may help to observe patterns and themes (Patton, 2015) useful for explaining how people view or reportedly respond to toxic waste or perceived waste threats.
A slew of policies, treaties, opinions and recent legal challenges point to the need for a shift in policy on the environment in the U.S. and elsewhere. This study is designed to include an examination of leadership attitudes (specialists) contrasted by general population and offers a systematic categorization of accepted scientific facts on environmental contamination in an effort to distill valid descriptions and useful synthesized policy recommendations once polls/ field interviews are synthesized.
This study addresses a gap in literature by providing a trustworthy pragmatic appraisal of the purposeful sample (and general sample) of U.S. attitudes pertaining to environmental contamination, policy, and related global security issues. Exploring attitudes in needed to help explain more about how in the midst of growing scientific data regarding the consequences of environmental contamination, the phenomenon of waste generation is a pervasive and culturally normal behavior in the west and increasingly – through globalization - the rest of the world, but we do not know why. Qualitative research may lead to better observations, definitions, and deduced statements of fact that can help to offer explanations for why despite existing regulation, problems with environmental contamination continue to widen globally.
Attitudes from the purposive and general sample and selected literature may reveal insights into why toxins are proliferating or how to better advocate for containment or add to the development of comprehensive threat definitions. Establishing baselines on what people think in the U.S. culture at this point in time could help make comparisons to other cultures and pinpoint cultural nuances contributing to explaining why toxins are becoming so pervasive in food, consumer and industrial goods, and weapons development. Such information could be useful in designing stronger toxin deterrents and designing or reinforcing strategies to improve the strategies designed to advance U.S. and global security interests.
Observing differences and commonalities among demographics or factors such as race, age, gender, annual income, level of education, occupation, living in proximity to significant source pollution may also help to identify trends among the population polled or lead to coincidental observations.
This exploratory qualitative research is predicted to be potentially useful in supporting the advocacy of achieving toxic reductions and containment oriented solutions that are more consistent with U.S. environmental legislative intent, and the arguable rights of the population to be free of contaminants known to impede human development (Rice, 2001, Preece, 2007, Schuman, 2010). This research may reveal observable attitudes and implied relationships involved which contribute to present conditions pertaining to the pervasiveness of toxins in the U.S. and the proliferation or use of toxins abroad. The survey designed aims to lessen the gap of the absence of a reliable surveys and to provide greater explanations about how the U.S. population thinks and feels about environmental contamination, policy, and security. If cultural belief patterns exist, which are contributing is some way to the toleration of known dangers such as of toxins due to “cultural obedience” which reportedly contributed to the mismanagement of the Fukashima Nuclear plant and subsequent disaster recovery efforts (Kurokawa, 2012), perhaps revealing those patterns empirically can add to better balanced policy concerning control and containment efforts. If the research produces valid observable themes to help explain what the participants think and feel about the polled topics and scenarios, the purpose of the research will be fulfilled.
At Walden positive social change has been described as contributing knowledge for the greater good, immediate solutions that improve human and social conditions. (Introduction, About Walden University, 2013–2014 Walden University Catalog, March 2014). Public policy is to a large extent driven by biased perceptions which influence discussions and deliberations- ultimately impacting decisions and policy formulations and evaluations. The research proposed aims to contribute knowledge about risk and threat perceptions related to toxins, policy, and security to add to a growing body of research. The collected data can help reveal indicators for populations that are most at risk to toxic exposures in the U.S. and confirm or disprove earlier indicators from the Europeans on the subject which suggests wealthier and more educated people tend to be more aware of and better recognize common toxic threats when polled (European Commission, 2009 ). The research may also reveal gaps between scientific facts and what portions of the surveyed population actually believe about toxins. This information may help to identify which populations could benefit the most from education or laws designed to protect them.
One flaw in the proposed research is that on a basic human level there are many competing interest which will work against the full empowerment of participants, including readers, and the fact that many modern day exposures are beyond control in spite of what people think or know. The greatest impact of the research is estimated to be for those that can comprehend the materials and have resources to make better selections to maximize protections for themselves against avoidable toxic exposures in the future.
The project aims to provide a compelling creative synthesis background and findings section. The research brings together many pivotal points, which could result in inspiring improved policy, greater controls or containment of toxins and innovative developments which can replace the more dangerous and replaceable practices with safer options.
Longer-term this research aims to create a foundation for contingency planning to reduce the loss of life, or otherwise improve its quality in the establishment of relative equilibrium, an evolving unified grounded theory which helps people understand how to maintain delicate balances to optimize human potential and maximize mutual reliance originally pioneered by Bioethics founder Van Potter.
Content analysis led to many initial observations from the literature reviews which informed the purpose for the investigation to determine if claims about Environmental contamination are in fact credible threats. One observation when reviewing Environmental Protection agency data suggested fines were showing increases in incidents and alleged failing environmental policy generally is called out in literature by many other leaders in the U.S. and the global community. The hypothesis is that the practice to deter environmental contamination through current policies and penalties is largely ineffective. Conclusive research is needed and qualitative designs can help explain how and why this may be occurring.
Secondly, observations of the use of chemical weapons (Levy & Sidel 2012), despite various international treaties points to reinforce the argument deeper inquiry is needed in order to develop a reasonable threat assessment (Garcia, 2008 Pg. 26-40) in implicated insider threats depending on the judgement of reviewers concerned with and knowledgeable of physical protection systems, U.S. constitutional considerations, and pertinent international laws.
Thirdly, concerning the lack of reliable polling of attitudes in the U.S. (Reinson,2005 ) an opportunity to fill a gap in the academic literature was pinpointed. Gallop designs show leading and lack of qualitative designs or validity controls generally, which points to design problems and potential invalidating or excessive bias which contaminates the data collected.
Fourthly, a gap in legislation and enforcement exists regarding toxic materials management nationally, and internationally. Gaps especially exist pertaining to the management of war and post war actions or responsibilities related to toxic waste products which pose health risks to inhabitants in the effected regions (Levy and Sidel, 2012). The gap presents a need for recommendations and policy formation in the opinion of the researcher. To present reasonable recommendations further analysis of existing legislation and deliberative processes such as polling and data analysis proposed here is required.
Fifthly, U.S. non-participation in the International Criminal Court (Davenport, 2003) leaves it subject only to internal controls and direct State to State diplomacy pressures for accountability regarding the reasonable and lawful use of force. Ultimately, the U.S.’s granting of waivers to itself with regard to the development and use of toxins as delineated in U.S. Code, Title 8 hazardous waste rules has far reaching consequences, many of them argued to be unintended. Broadening claims that U.S. federal regulatory policies, which apparently sometimes contradicts known science is now allegedly permitting life threatening levels of toxins in air, water, or food supplies. While some contamination levels may be beyond U.S. control coming from abroad, it is particularly concerning regarding toxins applied to crops within the U.S. Many of the chemicals are being made by enemy combatants, which are sold to the U.S. Glyphosate for example, is an herbicide regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Glyphosate is known to induce human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors (Thongprakaisang S. 2013).
Sixth, in 2014, Dr. James Hansen, Plaintiff, along with 21 youth filed a complaint against the Federal Government alleging improper regulation enforcement of pollutants is violating their Constitutional rights to be free from harm in person and in property (www.ourchildrenstrust.org ). In order to help meet a burden of evidence and potentially sway a jury, the research, if it advances, could point to valid polling of the U.S. to help argue a reasonable man’s test. If in fact the studies participants consistently shows people expressing opinions concerning certain rights or elements of constitution rights being violated or not, then such research could be entered into the case for review and be used one way of the other to help decide the case.
From 1980- to present, some of the worst environmental accidents on record have occurred including several hundred nuclear related incidents and thousands of industrial accidents involving toxins. Furthermore, some spills and accidents can reasonably be expected to have occurred without any reporting- especially in other parts of the world where regulation and controls are either lacking or non-existent. During the same period of alleged gains being reported with regard to Nuclear Non-proliferation, and weapons de-escalation, an increased use of pollutants occurred as a result of globalization, international trade deals, and industry trends in agriculture and other sectors driven by consumer demands and innovation. The medical community continues to produce research showing connections between pollution and environmentally related diseases and birth deformities (Caldicott, 1994) (Sue, Sue, Sue 2000 ) (Preece, 2007) (Schuman, 2010).
What may be facilitating the tolerance of the destructive behavior? The current threat deterrent theory of military violence supremacy requiring dominant chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction, in conjunction with economic values and standard practices of industrialized society, contrasted against forecasts and current measurements of environmental contamination, extinctions (Smith, 2004), rising environmentally related diseases (Kaufman & Franz, 1996 ): cancer and developmental disorders with lifestyle and environment accounting for 90%-95% of our most chronic illnesses- not genes (Anand et al. 2008), all point to pollution as a major threat (Caldicot, 1994) and correlated cause for biological deterioration. Discrepencies between existing environmental policy and observed human behavior (Congressional Research Service, 1990), such as environmental degradation rates, especially in the counties with the highest observed waste problems, like the U.S., demonstrates the need for further investigations regarding undesirable waste producing human behavior to minimize damages and losses of life.
Rifts exist in the field of emergency management with strong condemnation of the U.S. Government’s emergency planning to realistically prioritize and adequately respond to potential threats or even properly identify them- possible explained by pervasive bias (Douglas, 2000), obedience (Kurokawa, 2012), or other barriers such as error (Bogner, 2003) issues with leaderships such as competence. Emergency planning could have a profound impact on the lives of millions of Americans if ever needed to be implemented.
A unified theory addressing toxins is non-existent. Thus, any research which helps to empirically explore and define the problem and shed light on the phenomenon of toxins is useful in the development of grounded theory in the future which may resolve the current debates leaving toxins a complex [contested] theory except perhaps within the medical community where correlations between pollution contamination and increased environmental disease is largely accepted. However, different explanations for the behavior of disease exists due to the adaptive capacity and differences inherent in the immune defenses of individuals, especially in different phases of development and or experiential inputs such as stress and in some instances even genetics with regard to pre-dispositions to illnesses or compounding variables such as pre-existing conditions which helps to explain how different degrees of impacts are observable when pollution based exposures take place at the individual level.
The earliest U.S. naturalists Aldo Leopold (1887) is credited to be an early founder of the Environmentalist movement followed by Berry and others. According to my creative synthesis Environmentalism’s chain theory evolved from to Galileo’s cause effect theory and gives rise to the being able to execute quantitative studies such as the one which found explainable variables to violence as a disease (Slutkin, 2013). We know a great deal about what violence is and very little about why and even less about how to respond effectively to violence. Prior theories and research results from social-behavioral and medical, environmental sciences, and law informs my perspective from which a need for research is identified. The more recent progressive steps launched by pioneers of Natural Law includes the formation of Bioethics and behavioral sciences. For some, calculating winning war has shifted to recognize the limitations the earlier idealized supreme instruments of destruction such as Nuclear power and the lucrative asset controls which growing populations and economies play against one another to maintain sustainable positions on the competitive and mutually reliant yet contested (Potter, V. 1971) stage. With an abundance of knowledge on punishment proving to be ineffective at behavior modification (Maag, 1999) and the long-term injury of war (both for the perpetrator and the victims) and the experience of the reality that violence based war is more often absent fairness and obedience supports diplomacy over war.
An examination of EPA records in 2014 going back several years showed the EPA cites more companies year over year for violations of existing rules (Jackson, 2014), but the violators profits make it a mere offset and destructive behavior often continues unabated. The end result of contamination includes 90% waterways in the U.S. [Al Gore, reprint Silent Spring introduction] contaminated and cancer is on massive rise in the U.S. (Carson, 1962). More people are dying from self-inflicted toxins than any terrorist attack to date, yet toxins, including drug abuse, remain a poorly managed threat overall in U.S. regional contingency plans. Perhaps competing interests and short range unintelligent decisions are being made by an uninformed small group of benefactors whom are authorizing the toxins to mount. That is the very definition of corruption and it weakens the genetic code of humans, which ironically was Hitler’s aim- to shatter the atom.
I suspect that people's ability to empathize varies based on biology and social context such as brain size, diet, toxic exposure or brain injury or malformations, education and opportunity which is largely expected to be associated with socio-economic status. I depart from my contemporary counterparts and strongly reject the notion humans are naturally trying to strive or have innate nurturing tendencies. It is my observation that few care, and fewer still will find ways to do actually do something significant for this or for future generations. Even those that do try are often under-informed and use methods that often time have counter effects- and further propel ideological based destructive behaviors despite what could otherwise be labeled as good intentions or even myth.
No valid or credible polls on public opinions of U.S. population concerning exposures to environmental contaminants related to global security were located in literature searches across multiple scholarly research databases. The absence of valid reports on attitudes in the literature shows an emphasis of research on the topic of toxins driven by competing interests, largely in the military, bio-medical, and industrial fields. Little of the ongoing research reviewed really gets at the essence of describing why people pollute or why. For example, the Western civilization waste many more times than other cultures do and what people think about such facts is critical to understanding a culture of tolerance. Why for example is it deemed socially normal for kids to experiment more with drugs or sexuality in some cultures and not others. Only a few non-scholarly government polls exist such as the European Commission’s “Eurobarameter” (2009) and few weakly designed academic studies such as a 2007 survey given to Americans and Russians (Center for International Security Studies at Maryland, 2007) serve to reinforce the need for valid polls. Additionally, U.S. Gallop polls, which are considered non-scientific due to methods problems, suggested that the American public has, since the 1980’s considered toxins and pollution, especially of water and land a top perceived threat generating worry. However, between 2000 and 2012 the overall concern shows a decline in worry among the 1200 polled samples– a net 20 percent decline in reported concern over a decade (Gallup, 2012). However, those findings correlate closely to another poll given by Washington Post Stanford collaborative poll, which included 804 adults in 2012 showing an 18% drop from earlier 33% figures reporting global warming to be a top environmental concern among the polled population. The alleged reasons for the changes are not explained, but sample errors and question wording of the prior research reviewed shows some bias limiting an ability to collect valid data and research design choices limiting the ability of the researchers to explain the results. Both limitations can be better controlled in polling designs that contain a better qualitative approach research design. Furthermore, the narrower frames issued concerning contaminations effects are not comprehensive understanding for the phenomenon.
Somatic mutation theory (SMT) and an alternate theory of carcinogenesis is tissue organization field theory (TOFT) (Soto & Sonnenschein, 2011) help to explain cancer and both explain how it develops.
Toxins present risks to anyone exposed and for future generations not only from the exposure, but in terms of retaliatory actions that may be taken by the groups damaged.
Vast research and credible text’s establish that toxic waste is a serious threat to health with correlational disease links (Anand et al. 2008), yet toxic waste continues to be produced at ever increasing volumes and varieties as globalization continues and populations expand.
Despite many environmentally related catastrophes through time such as Fukashima Nuclear disaster ( Kurokawa, 2012), Chernobyl nuclear disaster, actions leading to the destruction of primary environmental resources necessary for basic human survival are growing- even against the numerous legislative well intended policies such as the Clean Air and Water Acts designed to prevent toxic contaminations and various national and international treaties regarding chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons (Levy, 2012 pg. 155-224). The cumulative experience of such laws and treaties points to a slowing in damages in some instances at best and complete failures in other instances. However, scholarly research was not found concerning U.S. population’s attitudes about toxic waste in specific to war and industrial related contaminations.
A lack of study and corrective actions on this fetish with waste presents a significant threat to national and international interests because the status quo of depleting resources at unsustainable rates and preventable losses of biomass related to toxic activities go without significant or useful checks and balances.
By soliciting independent scientific reviews for various parts of the study from expert researchers in private and non-profit sectors, the commitment to ensure an effective research design which employs a number of best practices from both quantitative and qualitative research traditions reflects my commitment and ability to produce scientific results.
Common inconsistencies and variances in definitions and tolerances of toxins in treatments of persons and pertaining to environmental regulations between states and countries is evident (Caldicott, 1994). Thus, toxins while in medical arenas is considered a simple theory (well defined but evolving due to mutation theory advancements), in other areas of society it is held as a complicated theory (controversial) or even complex one (high uncertainty). A framework emerged around a single observation regarding the issue of toxic contaminants being left on the field as wars in the Middle East come to a close (Levy and Sidel, 2012).
By knowing more about what spreads violence, we can gain insights into possible ways to inhibit or better control it. Later research (Slutkin,2013) showed broader relevance on the subject which ultimately questions the validity of use of violence to address violence and the need to enhance military defense strategies. A change in the use of violence, and instruments of violence could impact the use and development of toxins. Therefore, from a threat analysis point of view, this study is considered critical in supporting the need for more research because false beliefs of safety with regard to toxins could lead the U.S. with domestic disasters similar to what occurred recently in Japan, if we are not properly prepared.
The open ended questions posed in the surveys are intentionally not tightly bound and presented to in English speaking cultures that reportedly have polluted or are subject to the impacts to help gain a greater understanding of people’s sense of responsibility related to the preservation of nature, protection of life and beliefs for what might improve current approaches.
Punctuated equilibrium theory is rooted in Complex Systems Theory and facilitates, “policy analysis that can lead to rapid, correcting change in the face of accumulating factual evidence” (Sabatier, 2014). Punctuated Equilibrium is useful in explaining how unaddressed grievances, destabilizing events, leads to explosive changes and the establishment of new policy. The theory posits that, “American [U.S.] political institutions are conservatively designed to resist many efforts at change and thus to make mobilizations necessary to overcome established interests” (Sabatier, 2014 pg. 62)
Punctuated equilibrium is relevant to the proposed research for several reasons. The theory asserts that large scale departures from stability sometimes occurs. The research proposed aims to discern the perceptions of the public to learn whether the subjects reviewed reflect observable trends or patterns that show whether significant instabilities or explosive changes are occurring now based on trends and pattern analysis in respondent surveys. This theory is pertinent and aligned with Environmentalist Theory because predictions made by a growing number of Environmental Scientists that the Greenhouse effect and other perceived threats are occurring represents a growing body of evidences. The theory expands on earlier political science theory asserting issue defining and agenda setting are critical to social change. The theory also points to the power of questioning policies at “fundamental levels” as being a vehicle for change (Sabatier, 2014 pg. 60). Therefore, agenda setting and bounded rationality along with incremental decision making all help to understand the political process. The theory will help in the discussion section to place the poll’s findings in an applied context for recommendations which may result during analysis.
Punctuated Equilibrium reinforces that respondents survey responses that content analysis leading to the need for the study is grounded in a theoretical framework which corresponds to Walden Universities social change and justice commitment. A well designed qualitative poll to combat the implied resistance to change in the U.S. political systems and need to mobilize for change using objective data collected from a body of people that in a democracy seeks representation, posits knowing the real view of the population should be part of the driving influence for the agenda setting and actions taken by select representatives as a form of distributive power or influence from bottom up. Scholarly designed polls are therefore potentially an instrument of change.
Draft Research Questions
These questions will be further refined in two focus groups scheduled tentatively for July 2016 and by the research committee feedback in the same month. The goal is to reduce the questions to 12 or so at this point in the process to keep participants time under 35 minutes when interviews begin.
Draft Research Questions Analysis: The questions belong to one of the following classifications. This is important to show congruence to problem statement of overall inquiry approach.
- Applied Research/ Legislative Monitoring
- Appreciative Inquiry/ Espoused Theories Versus Theories in Use
- Formative Evaluation/ Predictive Systems Theory
- Moral Hazard Problem/ Complex System Theory
RQ1 Laws are designed to control human behavior, but clear intentional and unintentional violations of laws exist.This draws into question the effectiveness of laws and the extent laws are successful or unsuccessful in regulating human behavior locally, nationally, and internationally and how legal processes might be improved upon to be more effective.To what extent do you think laws regulating toxins in air, water, and food supplies in or entering the U.S. are working and why?
RQ2 To what extent are laws designed to protect the environment failing and why?
RQ3 What may reduce environmental contamination in the U.S.?
RQ4 Depleted Uranium products produce a radioactive and toxic environmental contaminant, but were used between 1991-2003 in various wars (Levy & Sidel 2012, pg.157) despite being considered illegal by international law (Levy & Sidel, 2012 pg.281) [ such as Geneva convention 1925].Between 1,000 and 2,000tons of toxic and radioactive depleted uranium, which is used to harden shells and shell casings to permit them to penetrate armor, were used in Iraq by U.S. and British forces.Radioactive and toxic uranium constitutes a widespread and long lasting threat to health (Levy & Sidel, 2012 pg. 278).Given those facts, what do you think should be done now concerning the hazardous waste left in recent war regions, if anything?
RQ5 For many generations the struggle for safer working conditions has ensued.Consequently, a complex array of legal codes are designed to protect workers and consumers in the U.S. by limiting toxins, but exceptions or exemptions based on a variety of variables exists -some noble such as medical use interventions. What sorts of exemptions for toxic productions are you aware of that may be based on other intentions and how would you describe those intentions?
RQ6 The distribution of toxins have contributed to health risks and problems related to contamination of air, water, and food supplies ( ). What have you seen or experienced related to this observation within U.S. culture?
RQ7 Please share your experience and views and possible solutions to the environmental contamination problem, if any.
RQ8 If providing more food for more people and keeping innovative tools of life extending technology or allowing lavish consumer goods limits the future or causes destruction in the process, what other options might there be available?
RQ9 What longer term solutions to contain toxins that support the longer-term regenerative ability of the earth exists or are otherwise needed?
RQ10 How would you define environmental contamination being a threat?
RQ11 Do you think global warming is a real threat and why?
RQ 12 In few words, what are the top three threats you are aware of impacting the most people on earth right now?
RQ 13 What kinds of policy, process, or procedure based solutions may make diplomacy more effective in internal and external conflicts the U.S. faces?
RQ 14 Under crises, rules tend to be abandoned, revised, or made to rationalize popular sentiment, which is not always the best course of action.How can this observation help inform state sponsored emergency planning?
RQ15 What sorts of emergency planning have you made in case of a natural disaster or war?
RQ16 What areas of the governments local emergency plans for your region do you think need more work and why?
RQ17 What can be done better to minimize the exposures or potential claims against the U.S. Government regarding sanctioned environmental contamination?
RQ18 Where disclosure of health risks are required, what is a reasonable assurance the risks are understood?
RQ19 What responsibility for unintended consequences (future illnesses, or deaths) resulting from environmental contaminants (toxins) left on the ground should war waging groups face, if any?
RQ20 Are there circumstances where war making states should not be held responsible post war, for toxic materials and weapons used or left on the ground, which are known to cause harm or even kill people after the war is officially over?
RQ21 Do you have ideas on how people might have a more participatory role in directing where there tax dollars go and where they don’t go and do you think this would be consistent or against democracy and why?
RQ22 What can encourage or pressure global governments and citizens to move towards more sustainable lifestyles or less depletive ones?
RQ23 Please offer a definition for toxin and illustrate toxins in your daily life which you tolerate and or consume willingly and offer reasons why.
- Annual Income Range-
- Completed Level of Education-